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sindhu river

The Sindhu River

Sindhu is the most ancient and prominent river of the sub-continent. The social, cultural and the literary growth of the people of Sindh and political and economic conditions of the country have been always affected and influenced by the River Sindhu.

A great trans-Himalayan river of South Asia and one of the world’s largest rivers with a length of 1800 miles (2900 km), the Sindhu rises in South Western Tibet at an elevation of about 18000 feet (5500 m) and flows in a north-westerly direction along the slopes of the Himalayas, crossing into Ladakh region of India. The River Sindhu flows from the north to the south of Sindh province dividing it into two parts, after crossing Jammu and Kashmir in India and Punjab in Pakistan.

The Aryans’ first settlement was on the banks of River Sindhu. Aryans named it ‘Sindhu’ which means ‘the Ocean or vast expanse of water’ in Sanskrit. The land around river Sindhu is known as ‘Sindh’ and the people inhabiting this land as ‘Sindhis’. Persians pronounced the word ‘Sindhu’ as Hindu, and the Greeks and Latins, as Indu. Thus, the river Sindhu became Indus, the country was named India, and the people occupying the sub-continent as Hindus. All these present day words India, Indus, Indica, Hindu, Hindi, Hindustan have originated from ‘Sindhu'.

The most ancient scriptures ‘Vedas’ were chanted by the Rishis on the banks of river Sindhu. In one hymn of ‘Rig Veda’, they have eulogized Sindhu (the place) as under :

“The Sindhu is rich in horses, rich in chariots, rich in clothes, rich in gold ornaments, well made, rich in food, rich in wool, ever fresh, abounding in Silama plants and the auspicious river wears honey-growing flowers." (Rig Veda x 75 Prof. Wilson’s translation)

Darius, Alexander and after them, hordes of other invaders plundered the wealth of Sindhu, lured by its riches for many centuries, till the Arab invasion in 711 A.D., who occupied the land and settled here. After the Arab period, Sindh was ruled by indigenous tribes of Soomras and Samas. It was invaded by Turkhans and Arguns, till the Moghuls took over Sindh.

After the disintegration of the Moghul Empire, again it was ruled by local tribal chiefs i.e., Kalohoras and Mirs. The British conquered Sindh in 1843, and exploited its water resources by building barrages and canal systems for irrigation.

River Sindhu has remained the life line for people of Sindh from beginning, providing them with material, cultural and spiritual sustenance.

On the banks of Sindhu, one of the great civilisations of the world known as ‘Indus Valley Civilisation’ evolved, the ruins of Mohen-Jo-Daro bear the testimony of its grandeur. It has been the cradle of all the later civilisations including our own Indian Civilisation. That’s why the word ‘Sindhu’ is integral part of Indian National Anthem.

Learn sindhu river of Sindhi Language, Sindhi Boli, Sindhi Bhasha, سنڌي ٻولي, सिंधी भाषा,سنڌي سکو

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