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Sindhi Grammar - Noun

Noun

اِسمُ

Noun is the name of any living or non-living thing, quality, condition or action.

Ram

rāmu

رامُ

Boy

chhokro

ڇوڪرو

Chair

kursī

ڪُرسي

Truth

sachāī

سَچائيِ

Heat

garmī

گرميِ


Types of Noun

Declension of noun

Types of Noun

Common Noun

اِسم عام

Proper Noun

اِسم خاص

Collective Noun

اِسم جَمَحُ

Material Noun

اِسم جنس

Abstract Noun

اِسم ذات

Common Noun

اِسم عام

The noun used for a category of things (living/non living) or place is called a common noun.

Examples:

Man

māṇhūN

ماڻهوُ

River

nadī

نَديِ

City

shahiru

شَهِرُ

Proper Noun

اِسم خاص

The noun used for a particular person, place or thing is known as a proper noun.

Examples:

Mohan

mohanu

موهن

Ganges River

gangā nadī

گنگا نديِ

Mumbai

mumbaī

مُمبَئيِ

Collective Noun

اِسم جَمَحُ

The noun used for a set (group) or particular living or non-living is known as collective noun.

Examples:

Military

sainā

سَينا

Flock

jhunḍu

جُهنڊُ

Herd

dhaṇu

ڍَڻُ

Material Noun

اِسم جنس

This noun used for a material is known as material noun.

Examples:

Milk

khīru

کيِرُ

Wheat

kaṇka

ڪَڻڪَ

Water

pāṇī

پاڻيِ

Abstract Noun

اِسم ذات

The noun of a particular quality, condition or task is known as an abstract noun.

Examples:

Love

premu

پريم

Heat

garmī

گرميِ

Run

doṛa

ڊوڙَ

Declension Noun

اِسم جو ڦيرو

In Sindhi, the noun changes according to the gender, number and case.

Gender :

In Sindhi, there are two genders:

Masculine Gender جنس مذڪر

Feminine Gender جنس مونث

The nouns that indicate the ‘male’ have masculine gender جنس مذڪر. For example, nouns ڇوڪرو chhokro (boy), گهوڙو ghoṛo (horse) are male, therefore, their gender is masculine.

The nouns that indicate female have feminine gender جنس مونث. For example, nouns ڇوڪري chhokrī (girl), گهوڙيِ ghoṛi (mare) are females, therefore, their gender is feminine.

It is necessary to note that in Sindhi, the gender is a grammatical feature and even non-living things have genders.

For example, دَرُ darū (door) is masculine gender جنس مذڪر and دَريِ dari (window) is feminine gender جنس مونث.

The gender of the noun in Sindhi depends on the last syllable or on the last sound of the word. The words ending in او (o), اُ (u), اوُ (ū) generally have masculine gender.

For example:

Boy

chhokro

ڇوڪرو

Horse

ghoṛo

گهوڙو

Door

darvazo

دَروازو

House

gharu

گَهرُ

Man

māṇhūN

ماڻهوُ


The words ending in اَ (a), آ (ā), اِ (i) and ايِ (ī) generally have feminine gender.

For example:

Wife

zāla

زالَ

Table

maiza

مَيزَ

Story

kathā

ڪَٿا

Wall

bhiti

ڀِتِ

Cat

ḇillī

ٻِليِ

Normally, a feminine form is derived from a masculine form. Some of the related masculine and feminine nouns are as follows:

Masculine Feminine
Boy chhokro ڇوڪرو Girl chhokrī ڇوڪري
Horse ghoṛo گهوڙو Mare ghoṛī گهوڙيِ
Washerman dhoḇī ڌوٻيِ Washerwoman dhoḇyāṇī ڌوٻياڻي
Beggar (man) fakīru فَقيِرُ Beggar (woman) fakīryanī فَقيِرياڻيِ
Richman seṭhi سيٺِ Rich woman seṭhyāṇī سيٺياڻيِ
Lion shīNhuN شيِنهُن Lioness shīNhaṇi شيِنهَڻ
He-goat ḇakaru ٻَڪرُ She-goat ḇakrī ٻَڪريِ
Number

In Sindhi, there are two numbers – singular and plural, ‘singular’ means ‘one’ and ‘plural’ means ‘more than one’ . Normally, all the nouns change according to the number(singular and plural), but there are some nouns(masculine as well as feminine) which remain unchanged in both the numbers.

For example:

One man (m.sg.) hiku māṇhūN هِڪُ ماڻهوُ
Many men (m. pl.) ghaṇā māṇhūN گهَڻا ماڻهوُ
One louse (f. sg.) hika jūN هِڪَ جوُن
Lice (f. pl.) ghaṇyūN jūN گهَڻيوُن جوُن

Normally, plural forms are formed by adding a suffix to singular form. Here are some examples:

Masculine Nouns
Singular Plural
Boy chhokro ڇوڪرو Boys chhokrā ڇوڪرا
Horse ghoṛo گهوڙو Horses ghoṛā گهوڙا
Child ḇāru ٻارُ Children ḇāra ٻارَ
House gharu گهَرُ Houses ghara گهَرَ
Rich man seṭhi سيٺِ Rich men seṭhyūN سيٺيوُن
Feminine Nouns
Singular Plural
Wife zāla زالَ Wives zālūN زالوُن
Medicine davā دَوا Medicines davāūN دَوائوُن
Eye akhi اَکِ Eyes akhiyūN اَکيوُن
Girl chhokrī ڇوڪريِ Girls chhokyūN ڇوڪريوُن
Mother-in-law sasu سَسُ Mothers-in-law sasūN سَسوُن
The Case

The case حالَتِ indicates the relationship of a noun to other words in a sentence. In Sindhi, masculine nouns change in three cases – nominative oblique and vocative, while feminine nouns change only in two cases – nominative and oblique, as the nominative and vocative cases are similar.

When the noun is the subject or doer of the action (the verb), it is said to be in the Nominative Case . In this position, its form usually does not change.

For example:

The boy runs
chhokro ḍoṛe tho.
.ڇوڪرو ڊوڙي ٿو

In this sentence, ڇوڪرو (boy) is the subject or the doer, and he is directly related to action; ڊوڙَڻُ 'doṛaṇu' (to run), hence in this sentence, ڇوڪرو 'chhokro' (boy) is in nominative or direct case.

When the noun denotes a relation to the verb, other than that of the subject, it is said to be in Oblique Case. In this position, it is followed by a preposition and the form of the noun usually changes.

For example:

. ماءُ ڇوڪري کي سَڏُ ڪيو

māu chhokre khe saḏu kayo.

The mother called the boy.

In this case, the noun ڇوڪرو ‘boy’ is in oblique form. It therefore takes a preposition کي khe and changes in form to ڇوڪري chhokre.

The noun is in the Vocative case, when it is used to address call.

. ڇوڪرا، هيڏانهن اَچُ

chhokrā heḏāNhu achu.

O boy, come here.

In this sentence, the word ڇوڪرا O boy (m.sg.), is in vocative case as in this sentence, ڇوڪرو ‘boy’ has been addressed.


Masculine Nouns ending with [sindhi] (o).
eg: ڇوڪرو chhokro (boy)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative chhokro ڇوڪرو (boy) chhokrā ڇوڪرا (boys)
Oblique chhokre khe ڇوڪري کي (to boy) chhokrani khe ڇوڪرَنِ کي (to boys)
Vocative o chhokrā! ! او ڇوڪرا (o boy!) o chhokrā! ! او ڇوڪرا (o boys!)

Masculine Nouns ending with اُ (u).
e.g: ٻارُ ḇāru (child)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative ḇāru ٻارُ (child) ḇāra ٻارَ (children)
Oblique ḇāra khe ٻارََ کي (to child) ḇārani khe ٻارََنِ کي (to children)
Vocative o ḇāra! ! او ٻارَ (o child!) o ḇāro! ! او ٻارو (o children!)

Masculine Nouns ending with اوُ (ū).
eg: ماڻهوُ māṇhūN (man)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative māṇhūN ماڻهوُ (man) māṇhūN ماڻهوُ (men)
Oblique māṇhūN-a-khe ماڻهوُءَ کي (to man)) māṇhūNi khe ماڻهُنِ کي (to men)
Vocative o māṇhūN! ! او ماڻهوُ (o man!) o māṇhuo! ! او ماڻهُئو (o men!)

Masculine Nouns ending with ايِ (ī).
eg: ساٿي sāthī (friend)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative sāthī ساٿي (friend) sāthī ساٿي (friends)
Oblique sāthī-a-khe ساٿيِءَ کي (to friend) sāthyuni khe ساٿيُن کي (to friends)
Vocative o sāthī! ! او ساٿي (o friend!) o sāthī! ! او ساٿي (o friends!)

Note: Feminine nouns change only in two cases- nominative and oblique, as the nominative and vocative cases are similar.


Feminine Nouns ending with اَ (a).
eg: زالَ zāla (wife)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative zāla زالَ (wife) zālūN زالوُن (wives)
Oblique zāla khe زالَ کي (to wife)) zāluni زالُنِ کي (to wives)

Feminine Nouns ending with آ (ā).
eg: هَوا havā (air)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative havā هَوا (air) havāūN هَوائوُن (air (s))
Oblique havā meN هَوا ۾ (in air) havāuni meN هَوائُن ۾ (in air (s))

Feminine Nouns ending with اِ (i).
eg: اَکِ akhi (eye)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative akhi اَکِ (eye) akhyūN اَکيوُن (eyes)
Oblique akhi meN اَکِ ۾ (in eye) akhyuni اَکيُن ۾ (in eyes)

Feminine Nouns ending with ايِ (ī).
eg: ڇوڪريِ chhokrī (girl)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative chhokrī ڇوڪريِ (girl) chhokryūN ڇوڪريوُن (girls)
Oblique chhokrī-a-khe ڇوڪريِءَ کي (to girl) chhokryuni khe ڇوڪرِيُن کي (to girls)

Feminine Nouns ending with اُ (u).
eg: سَسُ sasu (mother-in-law)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative sasu سَسُ (mother-in-law) sasūN سَسوُن (mothers-in-law)
Oblique sasu lāi سَسُ لاءِ (for mother-in-law) sasuni lāi سَسُنِ لاءِ (for mothers-in-law)

Note: Like کي khe (to) and ۾ meN (in), other postpositions like تي te (on), جو jo (of), هيٺان heṭhāN (under) etc can also occur.

Learn Sindhi Grammar - Noun of Sindhi Language, Sindhi Boli, Sindhi Bhasha, سنڌي ٻولي, सिंधी भाषा,سنڌي سکو

 
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