Let's Learn Sindhi

FREE Mobile App also Available

Sindhi Quiz Online


Test your Sindhi Knowledge

Sindhi Grammar - Verb

Verb

فَعلَ

A verb expresses actions, events, or states of change. Every sentence has to contain a verb. For example:

to eat khāiṇu کائڻ
to write likhaṇu لِکڻ
to sleep sumhaṇu سُمهڻ
Types of verb
Transitive Verb
فعل متعدي
Intrasitive Verb
فعل لازمي
Auxillary Verb
فعل معاون
Compound Verb
فعل مرڪب

Transitive Verb
فعل متعدي

Transitive verb indicates action or happening experieced by the doer through the object.

For example:

. موهن اَنبُ کائي ٿو

mohanu ambu khāe tho.

Mohan eats a mango.

In this sentence, the verb کائڻ (to eat) is a transitive verb. The experience of eating is connected to the object اَنبُ (a mango).


Intransitive Verb
فعل لازمي

Intransitive verb indicates action or happening directly experienced by the doer.

For example:

. موهن ڊوڙي ٿو

mohanu doṛe tho.

Mohan runs.


In this statement, the experience of verb ڊوڙڻ (to run) is directly connected to the doer موهن (Mohan).


Auxiliary Verb
فعل معاون

Auxiliary verb provides the information regarding tense, mood and voice etc.

For example:

. موهن کائي رهيو آهي

mohanu khāi rahiyo āhe

Mohan is eating.


In this statement, the main verb is کائڻ (to eat), while رهيو (to be) indicates the continuity of action, hence رهيو (to be) is an auxiliary verb.


Compound Verb
فعل مرڪب

In compound verb, there are two elements related to the action. The main verb indicates the basic idea and the second element modifies the meaning of the main verb.

For example:

Mohan, come.     . موهن، اَچُ
Mohan do come.     . موهن، هَليو اَچُ

In thi second statement, هَليو (to walk) is supporting verb which modifies the meaning of main verb اَچُ (to come) expressing certainty or encouragement for coming. Therefore, the verb هَليو اَچُ (do come) is a compound verb.

In Sindhi, compound verbs are used frequently to achieve fuller/ richer expressions.


Inflection (changes) of Verb

Verbs change their form (inflected) according to time or tense, mood. voice, gender, number and person

Tenses
Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense
Simple Simple Simple
Continous/ Imperfect Continous/ Imperfect Continous/ Imperfect
Perfect Perfect ....
Habitual Habitual ....

Simple Present Tense
Transitive Verb
کائڻ
I eat a banana. (m, sg.)
. مان ڪيلو کان ٿو
I eat a banana. (f, sg.)
. مان ڪيلو کان ٿي
We eat a banana. (m, pl.)
. اسين ڪيلو کائوُن ٿا
We eat a banana. (f, pl.)
. اسين ڪيلو کائوُن ٿيوُن
You eat a banana. (m, sg.)
. تون ڪيلو کائين ٿو
You eat a banana. (f, sg.)
. تون ڪيلو کائين ٿي
You eat a banana. (m, pl.)
. توهين ڪيلو کائو ٿا
You eat a banana. (f, pl.)
. توهين ڪيلو کائو ٿيوُن
He eat a banana. (m, sg.)
. هوُ ڪيلو کائي ٿو
She eat a banana. (f, sg.)
. هوءَ ڪيلو کائي ٿي
They eat a banana. (m, pl.)
. هو ڪيلو کائين ٿا
They eat a banana. (f, pl.)
. هو ڪيلو کائين ٿيوُن
I walk. (m, sg.)
. مان هَلان ٿو
I walk. (f,sg.)
. مان هَلان ٿي
We walk. (m, pl.)
. اَسين هَلوُن ٿا
We walk. (f, pl.)
. اَسين هَلوُن ٿيوُن
You walk. (m, sg.)
. توُن هَليِن ٿو
You walk. (f, sg.)
. توُن هَليِن ٿي
You walk. (m, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَلو ٿا
You walk. (f, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَلو ٿيوُن
He walks. (m, sg)
. هوُ هَلي ٿو
She walks. (f, sg)
. هوءَ هَلي ٿي
They walk. (m, pl)
. هوُ هَلنِ ٿا
They walk. (f, pl)
. هوُ هَلنِ ٿيوُن

Present Continous Tense
Transitive Verb
کائڻ (to eat)
I am eating a banana. (m, sg.)
. مان ڪيلو کان پيو
I am eating a banana. (f, sg.)
. مان ڪيلو کان پيئي
We are eating a banana. (m, pl.)
. اَسيِن ڪيلو کائوُن پيا
We are eating a banana. (f, pl.)
. اَسيِن ڪيلو کائوُن پيوُن
You are eating a banana. (m, sg.)
. توُن ڪيلو کائيِن پيو
You are eating a banana. (f, sg.)
. توُن ڪيلو کائيِن پيئي
You are eating a banana. (m, pl.)
. تَوهيِن ڪيلو کائو پيا
You are eating a banana. (f, pl.)
. تَوهيِن ڪيلو کائو پيوُن
He is eating a banana. (m, sg.)
. هوُڪيلو کائي پيو
She is eating a banana. (f, sg.)
. هوءَ ڪيلو کائي پيئي
They are eating a banana. (m, pl.)
. هوڪيلو کائيِن پيا
They are eating a banana. (f, pl.)
. هوڪيلو کائين پيوُن
I am walking. (m, sg.)
. مان هَلان پيو
I am walking. (f, sg.)
. مان هَلان پيئي
We are walking. (m, pl.)
. اَسيِن هَلوُن پيا
We are walking. (f, pl.)
. اَسيِن هَلوُن پيوُن
You are walking. (m, sg.)
. توُن هَليِن پيو
You are walking. (f, sg.)
. توُن هَليِن پيئي
You are walking. (m, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَلو پيا
You are walking. (f, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَلو پيوُن
He is walking. (m, sg)
. هوُ هَلي پيو
She is walking. (f, sg)
. هوءَ هَلي پيئي
They are walking. (m, pl)
. هو هَلَن پيا
They are walking. (f, pl)
. هو هَلَن پيوُن

Present Perfect Tense
Transitive Verb
کائڻ (to eat)
I have eaten a banana. (m/f, sg.)
. مون ڪيلو کاڌو آهي
We have eaten a banana (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان ڪيلو کاڌو آهي
You have eaten a banana. (m/f, sg.)
. تو ڪيلو کاڌو آهي
You have eaten a banana. (m/f, pl.)
. توهان ڪيلو کاڌو آهي
He/She has eaten a banana. (m/f, sg.)
. هُن ڪيلو کاڌو آهي
They have eaten a banana. (m/f, pl.)
. هُنن ڪيلو کاڌو آهي
I have eaten two bananas. (m/f, sg.)
. مون ٻـ ڪيلا کاڌا آهن
We have eaten two bananas. (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان ٻـ ڪيلا کاڌا آهن
You have eaten two bananas. (m/f, sg.)
. تو ٻـ ڪيلا کاڌا آهن
You have eaten two bananas. (m/f, pl.)
. توهان ٻـ ڪيلا کاڌا آهن
He/She has eaten two bananas. (m/f, sg.)
. هُن ٻـ ڪيلا کاڌا آهن
They have eaten two bananas. (m/f, pl.)
. هُنن ٻـ ڪيلا کاڌا آهن
I have eaten an orange. (m/f, sg.)
. مون نارنگي کاڌي آهي
We have eaten an orange. (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان نارنگي کاڌي آهي
You have eaten an orange. (m/f, sg.)
. تو نارنگي کاڌي آهي
You have eaten an orange. (m/f, pl.)
. توهان نارنگي کاڌي آهي
He/She has eaten an orange. (m/f, sg.)
. هُن نارنگي کاڌي آهي
They have eaten an orange. (m/f, pl.)
. هُنن نارنگي کاڌي آهي
I have eaten two oranges. (m/f, sg.)
. مون ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن آهِن
We have eaten two oranges. (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن آهِن
You have eaten two oranges. (m/f, sg.)
. تو ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن آهِن
You have eaten two oranges. (m/f, pl.)
. توهان ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن آهِن
He/She has eaten two oranges. (m/f, sg.)
. هُن ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن آهِن
They have eaten two oranges. (m/f, pl.)
. هُنن ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن آهِن

Note: In the above examples, verb کائڻ (to eat) changes accoring to the gender and number of the object ڪيلو (banana) نارَنگي (orange) and not accoring to the subjectموُن (I), توُن (you), هوُ هوُءَ (He/She) etc.

Present Perfect Tense
Transitive Verb
هَلَڻُ (to walk)
I have walked. (m, sg.)
. مان هليو آهيان
I have walked. (f, sg.)
. مان هَلي آهيان
We have walked. (m, pl.)
. اَسين هَليا آهيون
We have walked. (f, pl.)
. اَسين هَليوُن آهيون
You have walked. (m, sg.)
. تون هليو آهين
You have walked. (f, sg.)
. تون هلي آهين
You have walked. (m, pl.)
. توهان هَليا آهيو
You have walked. (f, pl.)
. تَوهان هَليوُن آهيو
He has walked. (m, sg.)
. هوُ هَليو آهي
She has walked. (f, sg.)
. هوُءَ هَلي آهي
They have walked. (m, pl.)
. هوُ هَليا آهن
They have walked. (f, pl.)
. هوُ هَليوُن آهن

Simple Past Tense
Transitive Verb
کائِڻ (to eat)
I ate a banana. (m/f, sg.)
. موُن ڪيلو کاڌو
We ate a banana (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان ڪيلو کاڌو
You ate a banana. (m/f, sg.)
. تو ڪيلو کاڌو
You ate a banana. (m/f, pl.)
. تَوهان ڪيلو کاڌو
He/She ate a banana. (m/f, sg.)
. هُنَ ڪيلو کاڌو
They ate a banana. (m/f, pl.)
. هُنَنِ ڪيلو کاڌو
I ate two bananas. (m/f, sg.)
. موُن ٻـَ ڪيلا کاڌا
We ate two bananas. (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان ٻـَ ڪيلا کاڌا
You ate two bananas. (m/f, sg.)
. تو ٻـَ ڪيلا کاڌا
You ate two bananas. (m/f, pl.)
. تَوهان ٻـَ ڪيلا کاڌا
He/She ate two bananas. (m/f, sg.)
. هُنَ ٻـَ ڪيلا کاڌا
They ate two bananas. (m/f, pl.)
. هُنَنِ ٻـَ ڪيلا کاڌا
I have eaten an orange. (m/f, sg.)
. موُن نارَنگي کاڌي
We ate an orange. (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان نارَنگي کاڌي
You ate an orange. (m/f, sg.)
. تو نارَنگي کاڌي
You ate an orange. (m/f, pl.)
. تَوهان نارَنگي کاڌي
He/She ate an orange. (m/f, sg.)
. هُنَ نارَنگي کاڌي
They ate an orange. (m/f, pl.)
. هُنَنِ نارَنگي کاڌي
I ate two oranges. (m/f, sg.)
. موُن ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن
We ate two oranges. (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن
You ate two oranges. (m/f, sg.)
. تو ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن
You ate two oranges. (m/f, pl.)
. تَوهان ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن
He/She ate two oranges. (m/f, sg.)
. هُنَ ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن
They ate two oranges. (m/f, pl.)
. هُنَنِ ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن

Note: In above example, verb کائڻ (to eat) changes according to the gender and number of the object ڪيلو (banana)/ نارَنگي (orange) and not according to the subject موُن (I), توُن (you), هوُ هوءَ (He/She) etc.

Simple Past Tense
Transitive Verb
هَلَڻُ (to walk)
I walked. (m, sg.)
. مان هَليَسِ
I walked. (f, sg.)
. مان هَلِيَسِ
We walked. (m, pl.)
. اَسيِن هَلياسيِن
We walked. (f, pl.)
. اَسيِن هَليوسيِن
You walked. (m, sg.)
. توُن هَلئين، توُن هَليين
You walked. (f, sg.)
. توُن هَليِئَن
You walked. (m, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَليا
You walked. (f, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَليوُن
He walked. (m, sg.)
. هوُ هَليو
She walked. (f, sg.)
. هوُءَ هَلي
They walked. (m, pl.)
. هوُ هَليا
They walked. (f, pl.)
. هوُ هَليوُن

Past Continous Tense
Transitive Verb
کائڻ (to eat)
I was eating a banana. (m/f, sg.)
. موُن ڪيلو پِئي کاڌو
We were eating a banana (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان ڪيلو پِئي کاڌو
You were eating a banana. (m/f, sg.)
. تو ڪيلو پِئي کاڌو
You were eating a banana. (m/f, pl.)
. تَوهان ڪيلو پِئي کاڌو
He/She was eating a banana. (m/f, sg.)
. هُنَ ڪيلو پِئي کاڌو
They were eating a banana. (m/f, pl.)
. هُنَنِ ڪيلو پِئي کاڌو
I was eating bananas. (m/f, sg.)
. موُن ڪيلا پِئي کاڌا
We were eating bananas. (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان ڪيلا پِئي کاڌا
You were eating bananas. (m/f, sg.)
. توڪيلا پِئي کاڌا
You (pl.) were eating bananas. (m/f, pl.)
. تَوهان ڪيلا پِئي کاڌا
He/She was eating bananas. (m/f, sg.)
. هُنَ ڪيلا پِئي کاڌا
They were eating bananas. (m/f, pl.)
. هُنَنِ ڪيلا پِئي کاڌا
I was eating an orange. (m/f, sg.)
. موُن نارَنگي پِئي کاڌي
We were eating an orange. (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان نارَنگي پِئي کاڌي
You were eating an orange. (m/f, sg.)
. تو نارَنگي پِئي کاڌي
You were eating an orange. (m/f, pl.)
. تَوهان نارَنگي پِئي کاڌي
He/She was eating an orange. (m/f, sg.)
. هُنَ نارَنگي پِئي کاڌي
They were eating an orange. (m/f, pl.)
. هُنَنِ نارَنگي پِئي کاڌي
I was eating oranges. (m/f, sg.)
. موُن نارَنگيوُن پِئي کاڌيوُن
We were eating oranges. (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان نارَنگيوُن پِئي کاڌيوُن
You were eating oranges. (m/f, sg.)
. تو نارَنگيوُن پِئي کاڌيوُن
You were eating oranges. (m/f, pl.)
. تَوهان نارَنگيوُن پِئي کاڌيوُن
He/She was eating oranges. (m/f, sg.)
. هُنَ نارَنگيوُن پِئي کاڌيوُن
They were eating oranges. (m/f, pl.)
. هُنَنِ نارَنگيوُن پِئي کاڌيوُن

Transitive Verb
هَلَڻُ (to walk)
I was walking. (m, sg.)
. مان هَلِيُسِ پئي
I was walking. (f, sg.)
. مان هَلِيَسِ پئي
We were walking. (m, pl.)
. اَسيِن هَلياسيِن پئي
We were walking. (f, pl.)
. اَسيِن هَليوسيِن پئي
You were walking. (m, sg.)
. توُن هَلئين پئي
You were walking. (f, sg.)
. توُن هَليِئن پئي
You were walking. (m, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَليا پئي
You were walking. (f, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَليوُن پئي
He was walking. (m, sg.)
. هوُ هَليو پئي
She was walking. (f, sg.)
. هوءَ هَلي پئي
They were walking. (m, pl.)
. هوُ هَليا پئي
They were walking. (f, pl.)
. هوُ هَليوُن پئي

Past Perfect Tense
Transitive Verb
کائڻ (to eat)
I had eaten a banana. (m/f, sg.)
. موُن ڪيلو کاڌو هئو
We had eaten a banana (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان ڪيلو کاڌو هئو
You had eaten a banana. (m/f, sg.)
. تو ڪيلو کاڌو هئو
You had eaten a banana. (m/f, pl.)
. تَوهان ڪيلو کاڌو هئو
He/She had eaten a banana. (m/f, sg.)
. هُنَ ڪيلو کاڌو هئو
They had eaten a banana. (m/f, pl.)
. هنَنِ ڪيلو کاڌو هئو
I had eaten two bananas. (m/f, sg.)
. موُن ٻـ ڪيلا کاڌا هئا
We had eaten two bananas. (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان ٻـ ڪيلا کاڌا هئا
You had eaten two bananas. (m/f, sg.)
. تو ٻـ ڪيلا کاڌا هئا
You had eaten two bananas. (m/f, pl.)
. تَوهان ٻـ ڪيلا کاڌا هئا
He/She had eaten two bananas. (m/f, sg.)
. هُنَ ٻـ ڪيلا کاڌا هئا
They had eaten two bananas. (m/f, pl.)
. هنَنِ ٻـ ڪيلا کاڌا هئا
I had eaten an orange. (m/f, sg.)
. موُن نارَنگي کاڌيِ هُئي
We had eaten an orange. (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان نارَنگي کاڌيِ هُئي
You had eaten an orange. (m/f, sg.)
. تو نارَنگي کاڌيِ هُئي
You had eaten an orange. (m/f, pl.)
. تَوهان نارَنگي کاڌيِ هُئي
He/She had eaten an orange. (m/f, sg.)
. هُنَ نارَنگي کاڌيِ هُئي
They had eaten an orange. (m/f, pl.)
. هنَنِ نارَنگي کاڌيِ هُئي
I had eaten two oranges. (m/f, sg.)
. موُن ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن هُيوُن
We had eaten two oranges. (m/f, pl.)
. اَسان ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن هُيوُن
You had eaten two oranges. (m/f, sg.)
. تو ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن هُيوُن
You had eaten two oranges. (m/f, pl.)
. تَوهان ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن هُيوُن
He/She had eaten two oranges. (m/f, sg.)
. هُنَ ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن هُيوُن
They had eaten two oranges. (m/f, pl.)
. هنَنِ ٻـ نارَنگيوُن کاڌيوُن هُيوُن

Note: In above example, verb کائڻ (to eat) changes according to the gender and number of the object ڪيلو (banana)/ نارَنگي (orange) and not according to the subject موُن (I), تو (you), هُن (He/She) etc.


Past Perfect Tense
Transitive Verb
هَلَڻُ (to walk)
I had walked. (m, sg.)
. مان هليو هوس
I had walked. (f, sg.)
. مان هَلو هُئس
We had walked. (m, pl.)
. اَسيِن هليا هُئاسيِن
We had walked. (f, pl.)
. اَسيِن هليوُن هُيوسيِن
You had walked. (m, sg.)
. توُن هَليو هُئين
You had walked. (f, sg.)
. توُن هَليِ هُئيِئن
You had walked. (m, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَليا هُئا
You had walked. (f, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَليوُن هُيوُن
He had walked. (m, sg.)
. هوُ هَليو هُئو
She had walked. (f, sg.)
. هوءَ هَلي هُئي
They had walked. (m, pl.)
. هوُ هَليا هُئا
They had walked. (f, pl.)
. هوُ هَليوُن هُيوُن

Simple Future Tense
Transitive Verb
کائڻ (to eat)
I shall eat a banana. (m, sg.)
. مان ڪيلو کائيِندُس
I shall eat a banana. (f, sg.)
. مان ڪيلو کائيِندَسِ
We shall eat a banana. (m, pl.)
. اَسيِن ڪيلو کائيِنداسيِن
We shall eat a banana. (f, pl.)
. اَسيِن ڪيلو کائيِنديوُسيِن
You will eat a banana. (m, sg.)
. توُن ڪيلو کائيِندين
You will eat a banana. (f, sg.)
. توُن ڪيلو کائيِنديِئن
You will eat a banana. (m, pl.)
. تَوهيِن ڪيلو کائيِندا
You will eat a banana. (f, pl.)
. تَوهيِن ڪيلو کائيِنديوُن
He will eat a banana. (m, sg.)
. هوُڪيلو کائيِندو
She will eat a banana. (f, sg.)
. هوءَ ڪيلو کائيِنديِ
They will eat a banana. (m, pl.)
. هوُ ڪيلو کائيِندا
They will eat a banana. (f, pl.)
. هوُ ڪيلو کائيِنديوُن

Simple Future Tense
Transitive Verb
هَلَڻُ (to walk)
I shall walk. (m, sg.)
. مان هَلَندُس
I shall walk. (f, sg.)
. مان هَلَندَسِ
We shall walk. (m, pl.)
. اَسيِن هَلَنداسيِن
We shall walk. (f, pl.)
. اَسيِن هَلَنديوُسيِن
You will walk. (m, sg.)
. توُن هَلَندين
You will walk. (f, sg.)
. توُن هَلَنديِئن
You will walk. (m, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَلَندا
You will walk. (f, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَلَنديوُن
He will walk. (m, sg.)
. هوُ هَلَندو
She will walk. (f, sg.)
. هوءَ هَلَنديِ
They will walk. (m, pl.)
. هوُ هَلَندا
They will walk. (f, pl.)
. هوُ هَلَنديوُن

Future Continous Tense
Transitive Verb
کائِڻُ (to eat)
I shall be eating. (m, sg.)
. مان کائيِندو رَهَندُس
I shall be eating. (f, sg.)
. مان کائيِنديِ رَهَندَسِ
We shall be eating. (m, pl.)
. اَسيِن کائيِندا رَهَنداسيِن
We shall be eating. (f, pl.)
. اَسيِن کائيِنديوُن رَهَنديوُسيِن
You will be eating. (m, sg.)
. توُن کائيِندو رَهَندين
You will be eating. (f, sg.)
. توُن کائيِنديِ رَهَنديِئن
You will be eating. (m, pl.)
. تَوهيِن کائيِندا رَهَندا
You will be eating. (f, pl.)
. تَوهيِن کائيِنديوُن رَهَنديوُن
He will be eating. (m, sg.)
. هوُ کائيِندو رَهَندو
She will be eating. (f, sg.)
. هوءَ کائيِنديِ رَهَنديِ
They will be eating. (m, pl.)
. هوُ کائيِندا رَهَندا
They will be eating. (f, pl.)
. هوُ کائيِنديوُن رَهَنديوُن

Future Continous Tense
Transitive Verb
هَلَڻُ (to walk)
I shall be walking. (m, sg.)
. مان هَلَندُس پيو
I shall be walking. (f, sg.)
. مان هَلَندَسِ پيئي
We shall be walking. (m, pl.)
. اَسيِن هَلَنداسيِن پيا
We shall be walking. (f, pl.)
. اَسيِن هَلَنديوُسيِن پيوُن
You shall be walking. (m, sg.)
. توُن هَلَندين پيو
You shall be walking. (f, sg.)
. توُن هَلَنديِئن پيئي
You shall be walking. (m, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَلَندا پيا
You shall be walking. (f, pl.)
. تَوهيِن هَلَنديوُن پيوُن
He shall be walking. (m, sg.)
. هوُ هَلَندو پيو
She shall be walking. (f, sg.)
. هوءَ هَلَنديِ پيئي
They shall be walking. (m, pl.)
. هوُ هَلَندا پيا
They shall be walking. (f, pl.)
. هوُ هَلَنديوُن پيوُن

Root

The base or the basic part of a conjugade verb is called 'the root'. When all the suffixes are removed from the verbal form, the remaining base will be the root. For example, هَلَندو halando ((he) will walk.) is a verbal form, in which last suffix و (v) is masculinesingular suffix; اِند (ind) is future tense suffix and the remaining part هَل 'hal' is the root.


In Sindhi, there are two types of roots - اُ (u) ending, as هَلُ (halu = walk), ڊوڙُ (doṛu = run), and اِ (i) ending, like ڪَرِ (kari = do), ڀَرِ (bhari = fill).


The roots ending with اُ (u) are normally intransitive, and the roots ending with اِ (i) are transitive. The root ڏي (ḏe) is transitive,but not ending in اِ (i).

Infinitive

When a verbal form is used as a noun, it is called infinitive. For example:

Reading is good
paṛhaṇu suṭho āhe
پَڙھَڻُ سُٺو آهي

In this sentence, پَڙھَڻُ 'paṛhaṇu' (reading) is not used as a verb, but is used as a noun. Infinitive form also the form used in dictionaries.


Infinitive form is formed in Sindhi by adding اِڻُ 'iṇu' or اَڻُ 'aṇu' to the root. For example:

to eat
khā + iṇu = khāiṇu
کا + اِڻُ = کائِڻُ
to walk
halu + aṇu = halaṇu
هَل + اَڻُ = هَلَڻُ

Mood

The mood is a form of the verb which indicates the intention of the speaker. In Sindhi, there are three types of mood:

Imperative
Polite Imperative
Subjunctive

Imperative Mood

Imperative mood is used to express command or request. The singular imperative is same as the root, while the plural is formed by adding او 'o' to the roots ending in اُ 'u', and by adding يو 'yo' to the roots ending with اِ 'i'.

Example:

Root Singular Plural
halu هَلُ هَلُ هَلو Walk
bhari ڀَرِ ڀَرِ ڀَريو fill

Polite Imperative

Polite singular imperative mood is formed by adding اِج 'ij', while plural is formed by adding اِجو 'ijo' to the root. Polite imperative indicates future tense also.


Example:

Root Singular Plural
halu هَلُ هَلِجِ هَلِجو Walk
bhari ڀَرِ ڀَرِجِ ڀَرجو fill

Subjunctive

Subjunctive mood of the verb indicates asking a question or expressing a desire. The form of subjunctive verb remainssame from the masculine and feminine cases.


Example:

Root Singular Plural
halu هَلُ هَلان هَلوُن Walk
bhari ڀَرِ ڀَرِيان ڀَرِيوُن fill

Voice

Active voice

Passive voice


Active Voice

In active voice sentence, the subject is active. The verb in such sentence is either transitive or intransitive.

Example:

. مان اَنبُ کان ٿو

māN ambu khāN tho.

I eat a mango.


Passive Voice

In passive voice, the object is predominant in the sentence but the subject is passive.

Example:

. اَنبُ کائِجي ٿو

ambu khāije tho.

A mango is eaten.


Casual form of the verb

Casual form of the verb is used in a sentence when the subject of the verb only enables the action to take place, while the actul action is done by the noun in the object position. And therefore, in this form the verb function as a transitive verb.

Example:

. ماءُ ٻارَ کي کارايو

māu ḇāra khe khārāyo.

Mother made the child eat.


. ماستَرَ شاگِردَن کي لِکارايو

māstara shāgirdani khe likhārāyo.

Teacher made the students write.

Learn Sindhi Grammar - Verb of Sindhi Language, Sindhi Boli, Sindhi Bhasha, سنڌي ٻولي, सिंधी भाषा,سنڌي سکو

 
© 2020 Sindhi Sangat